Introduction About Pakistan
So you are looking for information all about Pakistan, you are at the right place where you can get comprehensive information about The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, a densely populated country in South Asia.
A great majority of the people of Pakistan have firm faith in destiny and divine intervention. They believe that the trials and tribulations they are facing today are all temporary. There is also the realization that they are a young nation and will require some time to mature.
Nations pass through trying times and have to learn through their mistakes. Pakistani engineers, doctors, scientists, educationists, social activists, and sports persons have done wonders and have achieved laurels for the motherland.
We got it after great struggle and sacrifices together with The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who is a real hero of Pakistan.
Pakistan is connected with Afghanistan, Iran, and India by cultural and historical points of view. Both Pak and India achieved independence from British imperialism in 1947. Pakistan is a country of Muslims, and India is a country of Hindus.
To maintain its existence, Pakistan has always struggled to achieve political stability and social development.
The History of Pakistan
Islam took over most of the Indian subcontinent in the 12th to 16th centuries, although there were limited Muslim incursions from the 8th century into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Beginning in the 12th century, several Islamic states were established in the Indian subcontinent in the course of gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. This process culminated in the Mughal Empire, which ruled most of India during the mid-16th to mid-19th centuries.
Prior to the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Muslim Moghul Empire was able to subjugate most of India’s Hindu kings. However, few parts in the upper reaches of the Himalayas and the extreme south remained under the rule of Hindu kings.
Pakistanis widely believe that the foundation of modern-day Pakistan was laid in 712 A.D. When The Arab conqueror Mohammad Bin Qasim arrived in Sindh and defeated Raja Dahir.
The Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah acclaimed the event:
“the Pakistan Movement started when the first Muslim put his foot on the soil of Sindh, the Gateway of Islam in India.”
The Pakistan Movement
The Pakistan movement and Islam are synonymous. The emergence of Pakistan on the world map as an independent country is a clear manifestation of the love the Muslims of the religion have for their faith.
Muslims ruled the subcontinent for thousands of years. After the independence of 1857, the British occupied the subcontinent. The British and the Hindus persecuted Muslims. The British occupation of the region and the subsequent war of independence in 1857 was an open manifestation of the Muslim spirit of revolt against foreign domination.
The failure of the movement did not dampen the spirit of Muslims. During this time of distress and disarray, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan emerged as a ray of hope for the Muslim Nation of the sub-continent.
Sir Syed declared that the Muslims could improve their political, social, and economic condition only through the medium of modem and scientific education.
The Two Nation Theory
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan cultivated the concept of a separate Muslim Nation on the basis of religion, culture, and history. He was the first leader who inspired the Muslims of the sub-continent to demand a separate homeland where they could lead their lives freely according to the dictates of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
The concept is commonly known as the “Two Nation Theory“.
This theory was later propagated by Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal, the great Muslim Poet, and Philosopher, who dreamt of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent. Pakistani nation celebrates Iqbal day every year and gives tributes to his efforts.
All India Muslim League
Under the guidance of Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslims established their political party named the All India Muslim League.
Quaid -e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was initially a great believer in Hindu-Muslim unity. He, at first backed the idea of one separate India free from the British rule, with Muslims and Hindus living together and side by side.
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah left the Congress Party because he felt the party was not fair to Muslims, as dominated by Hindus.
Because of this, Quaid-e-Azam left the Congress Party and joined the All India Muslim League. He felt that when India would gain independence from the British, the British Raj would be replaced by Ram Raj, and Muslims would have no voice left and would be defenseless.
The Congress was the party of Hindus. Through the All India Muslim League, Muslims got their lost political, economic, social, and religious position and achieved Pakistan in 1947. But in 1971, due to the conspiracies of significant powers, his right-hand East Pakistan was lost. And he appeared on the map called Bangladesh, where there were 65% Muslims.
Lahore Resolution 23rd March 1940
The Quaid was convinced that the only way for Muslims and Hindus to live peacefully was separate as two different nations. Initially, this was the idea of the great Muslim philosopher and thinker, Dr. Allama Iqbal.
As a result, In Lahore, the Pakistani regime declared the Pakistani plan on 23rd March 1940. This declaration was called the Lahore Resolution or better known as Pakistan Movement. Thus the struggle for Pakistan began.
When the time came for dividing the land between Pakistan and India it was decided that the Muslim majority areas would become Pakistan, and the Hindu majority areas India.
The plan for the territories had been made and agreed upon by both parties, but Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten teamed up with Jawarlal Nehru and changed the map and gave India the areas which were supposed to go to Pakistan causing millions of people to migrate from Pakistan to India and also from India to Pakistan.
Also, Mountbatten and Nehru played foul by making the Kashmiri ruler sign backdated and fake papers, which allowed India to land its forces in Kashmir and take control.
Pakistan was carved out of the subcontinent on the 14th of August 1947. The story of the struggle for independence from British rule is full of heroics and of sacrifices.
The Quaide Azam was helped by a large number of prominent personalities which include Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar from the Frontier, Qazi Muhammad Isa, and Nawab Muhammad Ayaz Khan Jogezai from Baluchistan, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot, and MianMumtaz Daultana from Punjab.
Pakistan across the globe celebrates the 14th of August as Independence Day of Pakistan with dignity and honor. There is no power on earth that can undo Pakistan. On this day of glory, every house and street is decorated with green flags. On the very special of 14th august, 1947, the world saw a new country named, “The Islamic Republic of Pakistan” as an independent country on the map of the world.
As freedom is the greatest blessing and sue to this reason this day has special importance in the lives of Pakistanis and they pay tribute to the great leaders because of whom they were able to get a separate homeland where they could live according to their will and could follow the Islamic rules and regulations without any hesitation.
Geography of Pakistan
Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world with a geological structure. The geography of Pakistan consists of beautiful scenery. It has got all the natural wonders from hot deserts to freezing glaciers, plains to mountain ranges, coastal areas to forests, beautiful lakes to long rivers. These include fields, deserts, forests, mountains, and plateaus.
The Arabian sea and the Karakoram mountain range are located in the north of Pakistan.
The irrigation system of Pakistan is the world’s largest irrigation source. Pakistan‘s well-being is dependent on it, being an agrarian economy. The river system consists of five major rivers which are Indus, Chenab, Sutlej, Jhelum, and Ravi. In addition, there are a significant number of other small rivers as well.
Pakistan is bordered by Iran to the West, Afghanistan to the northwest, and India to the east while China borders the country in the northeast. Its capital Islamabad is located in the foothills of the country’s northern part of the Himalayas. Its largest city is located on the coast of the Arabian sea in Karachi’s south.
Pakistan consists of four provinces, Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Balochistan is the biggest province of Pakistan in terms of acquiring land. Balochistan contains 44% of Pakistan’s total land.
As far as the biggest province of Pakistan in terms of population is concerned, the land of five rivers Punjab is the province having the largest population.
Each province is subdivided into Divisions, which are further subdivided into Districts. Districts are further subdivided into Tehsils, or Taluka, which are further subdivided into Union Councils.
The Climates of Pakistan
Pakistan is divided into four major climate zones.
- High land climates zone
- Low climate zone
- Arid climate zone
- Coastal climate zone
Seasons of Pakistan
There are four seasons in Pakistan.
A cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November.
Rainfall varies from year to year, resulting in at times floods. Periods of no rain are also common which results in droughts.
Since Pakistan is located north of the tropic of Cancer between latitudes 24° and 37° N, its climate is continental as shown by its extreme seasonal variation in temperature as well as the extreme daily temperature variations.
Temperatures on the Balochistan Plateau are higher, whereas, sea breezes alter the weather in the coastal part of Sindh and Baluchistan.
Because of the elevated altitude, the summers in the greater northern part of the country are quite mild, while the winters are harsh. In the rest of the country, average temperatures during June are 38 °C (100 °F) in the plains, the highest temperatures can exceed 47 °C (117°F).
In the summer, hot winds across the plains during the day. The dry, hot weather is broken occasionally by dust storms and thunderstorms that temporarily lower the temperature.
Pakistan is the 2nd most populous Muslim majority country. About 97% of Pakistanis are Muslims. The white in the Pakistani flag represents its minorities. Pakistan‘s minorities include Hindus, and Christians, each with a population of almost 3 million.
Pakistan, with 177.1 million people, is the 6th most populated country in the world. At the time of partition in1947, Pakistan‘s population was 32.5 million.
The increase in the population of Pakistan by 2.10 % (4,273,651 people) compared to the population of 203,216,893 the year before. In 2019 the natural increase was helpful, as the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 4,519,544.
Land Area of Pakistan
Pakistan covers an area of 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi), something like the same as the join-together land areas of France and the United Kingdom. It is the 33rd-largest nation in the whole area, while this ranking varies depending on how the unclear territory of Kashmir is counted.
The Literacy rate in Pakistan
The literacy rate sort from 85% in Islamabad to 23% in the Torghar District. Literacy rates vary regionally, on the whole, by sex. In ethnic areas, female literacy is 9.5%, while Azad Jammu and Kashmir have an aliteracy rate of 74%.
- Female: 51.8%
- Male: 72.5%
The Education in Pakistan
The education structure in Pakistan is usually divided into some levels;
- Secondary school certificate
- High secondary school certificates
- University programs
Higher education in Pakistan developed considerably after the country’s independence from Great Britain in 1947. Today the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan(HEC) oversees the system, which oversees the funding, research results, and quality of teaching
Pakistan is enriched by many outstanding universities. The total number of universities in Pakistan is 132, which is recognized by HEC. Out of which 73 are public universities and 59 are private.
The top 10 universities in Pakistan are,
- Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS)
- National University of Science and Technology
- Aga Khan University
- Quaid-e-Azam University
- Bahauddin Zakariya University (BZU)
- University of Engineering and Technology (UET) Lahore
- University of Southern Punjab (ISP)
- University of Karachi
- University of Lahore
- COMSATS University of Information Technology
Pakistan’s national language is Urdu, and the official language is English. Pakistan also has a number of regional languages. Punjabi, Saraiki, Pashto, Balochi, Gujar, Kashmiri, Hinko, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Dhatki, Haryanvi, Marwari, Wakhi, and Burushaski are some of them.
The Religion of Pakistan
Pakistan is the state of Islam, and as regards, 95.98% of Pakistanis are Muslim. Pakistan has the second most significant number of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. The common are Sunni 75.95% with an expected 6% Shia.
Tourism in Pakistan is a very excellent experience for those who are fond of traveling as Pakistan is adored and blessed with awe-inspiring and breathtaking natural and scenic beauty. It is situated in South Asia and shares the beauty of ancient places. Pakistan earns a lot of economic gains from tourism. When enlisting the beautiful places of Pakistan it is hard to enter each and every worth seeing place as Pakistan as a whole is very beautiful. However, some most famous and beautiful places in Pakistan are,
- Clifton Beach
- Badshahi Masjid
- Noor Mahal Derawar Fort
- Khewra Salt Mines
- Pir Ghaib–the Invisible Saint
- Quaid-e-Azam Residency
- Hannah jheel
- Malam Jabba
- Nathia Gali
- Kalash Valley
- Hunza Valley
- Skardu Valley
- Shogran Valley
We can not describe the beauty of Pakistan in words especially the charm of the Northern areas as it is a natural beauty and one can feel it only by visiting these places in real.
Pakistan is an agricultural country and it requires a lot of water for irrigation purposes. So to preserve water in rivers and to avoid flooding, water reservoirs called dams are built. These dams store water that not only fulfills the water requirement for irrigation but also this water is used for drinking and other household purposes. These dams also play a very significant role in generating hydroelectricity that has a key role in meeting Pakistan’s electricity needs.
There are 150 dams in Pakistan that are about 150ft. high. Most of the dams are built within the duration of 1965-1975.
Some most famous dams in Pakistan are,
- Rawal Dam
- Diamer Bhasha Dam
- Mangla Dam
- Neelum Jhelum Dam
- Mirani Dam
- Khanpur Dam
- Sabakzai dam
- Hub Dam
- Satpara Dam
- Warsak Dam
- Gomal Zam Dam
- Namal Dam
- Tarbela Dam–World’s Largest fill type dam——–It is located in Haripur. It is the largest fill type in the world and concerning structural volume, it is the second-largest dam in the world.
Allah Almighty has adored Pakistan with eye-catching beauty. Its beautiful scenic views leave one in awe. Northern areas are very famous due to their lush green valley and awesome and enchanting lakes. Pakistan has been bestowed with abundant lakes that not only add to the scenic beauty but also meet the need for water in agriculture and other household and drinking purposes.
There are almost 60 lakes in Pakistan and the top 15 most beautiful lakes are enlisted here,
- Attabad Lake
- Lake Saif-ul-Maluk
- Satpara Lake
- Dudipatsar Lake
- Lulusar Lake
- Ansoo Lake
- Swaik Lake
- Mahodand Lake
- Ratti Gali Lake
- Sheosar Lake
- Banjosa lake
- Chitta Katha Lake
- Karambar Lake
- Lower Kachura Lake
The Fashion Industry of Pakistan has got high fame and is now showcased all over the world. The fashion industry has created a creative, stylish, and fashion-loving image of Pakistan. Pakistani clothes have a high demand on national and international levels as they reflect and nominate culture and these colorful traditional dresses have enhanced the export potential. In the last ten years, fashion designing and the textile industry were key to Pakistan’s trade. The economy of Pakistan has tremendously influenced and flourished by the growth and development of the Fashion Industry.
Pakistan’s fashion industry is giving birth to so many famous fashion designers who not only rank nationally but also around the whole globe. Here we enlist some most important of them.
- Hassan Sheryar Yassen also known as HSY.
- Deepak Perwani
- Bunto Kazmi
- Sana Safinaz
- Maria B
- Shameel Ansari
- Zahra Shahjahan
- Nomi Ansari
- Umar Sayeed
- Fahad Hussayn
Pakistan’s defense day is celebrated on 6th September to commemorate the day of 6th September 1965 and to give tribute to the Pakistani soldiers who laid a beautiful example of patriotism by rendering their lives to save their beautiful homeland.
It is the day when Indian troops crossed the international borders and attacked from the three sides of Punjab in the midnight darkness thinking that the Pakistani army would be sleeping and unaware. It was an unprovoked surprise attack by India that was repulsed by the Pakistani army despite its small size and few armaments.
As “Culture grows on the wine of traditions.” Pakistan is a culture-rich country and when it comes to art and craft, blue the unique blue pottery of Pakistan stands as a uniquely appealing art. Pakistan’s elegant and beautiful blue pottery has high demand all over the world.
The fantastic art of creating polished blue pottery was introduced in Rajasthan and came from Kashmir Valley.
The Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is elected by the public and is the chief executive of the Government of Pakistan. He is the person who is, All in all, head of the government of Pakistan. He runs the administration of Pakistan and makes decisions nationwide.
After the independence of Pakistan on 14th August 1947, the oath of Presidentship was taken by Quaid-e-Azam and since then we have had 23 Prime Ministers that are as follows,
- Liaquat Ali Khan (1947-1951)
- Sir Khwaja Nizamuddin (1951-1953)
- Mohammad Ali Bogra (1953-1955)
- Chaudhry Mohammad Ali (1955-1956)
- Husain Shaheed Suharwardy (1956-1957)
- Ibraheem Ismaeel Chundigar (1957-1958)
- Sir Feroz Khan Noon (1957-1958)
- Noor ul Ameen (1893-1974)
- Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (1973-1977)
- Mohammad Khan Junejo (1985-1988)
- Benazir Bhutto (1988-1990)
- Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (1990-1993)
- Benazir Bhutto (1993-1996)
- Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (1997-1999)
- Zafarullah Khan Jamali (2002-2004)
- Chaudhary Shujat Hussain (2004)
- Shaukat Aziz (2004-2007)
- Yousaf Raza Gilani (2008-2012)
- Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (2013-2017)
- Shahid Khaqan Abbasi (2017-18)
- Imran Khan (2018-22)
- Mian Shahbaz Sharif (2022 to date)
Kabaddi is one of the most famous sports in South Asia and is conducted by IKF (International Kabaddi Federation). Pakistan has the superiority of leaving the world stunned with its brilliance and praiseworthy capabilities every now and then. Pakistan has given birth to the world’s best champions of sport and also has earned a very big name and fame in its National Sport, Kabaddi.
On the 16th of February 2020, Pakistan created a wonderful history by becoming the winner of Kabaddi World Cup 2020 (Circle Style) as Pakistan defeated India in 43-41 style. Pakistan won a Kabaddi World Cup and winners were awarded handsome cash prizes.
Agriculture is actually the backbone of the economy of Pakistan as it is the source of about 80% of our overall earnings from exports. Agriculture has a strong linkage with food security and the growth of other sectors of the economy. Luckily Pakistan is one of such countries that are blessed with treasure produced by agriculture as Wheat is the largest food crop in Pakistan while Pakistan is ranked 4th among cotton-producing countries worldwide after China, the USA, and India.
Its significance can be recognized by knowing that Pakistan’s 70% of its population is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture. Agriculture is the biggest profession and it’s meeting up the issue of unemployment in Pakistan.
Irrigation is the watering of the agricultural land that assures the growth of crops and increases productivity by some artificial means such as by channels. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy and it all depends on the irrigation system. The best the irrigation system, the more the crop production which guarantees a prosperous country. Luckily Pakistan has the World’s Largest Irrigation System which irritates or waters about 18 million hectares of productive and fertile land.
Pakistan has the superiority of being the first nuclear power in the whole Islamic world and it comes on the 7th number in the whole globe. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, a renowned chemist played a significant role in this. It was on 28th May 1988 that Pakistan made five successful nuclear attempts at Ras Koh Hills in Balochistan and got the dignity of maintaining a balance with India in every field. Pakistan uses its nuclear power only for useful purposes and for the welfare of mankind.
When it comes to TV in Pakistan, we like to say that we are going through a revival of sorts, but let us not forget the dramas of yore that were just as awesome and top rating in their days as our new dramas like Humsafar and Zindagi Gulzar Hai are now.
Our old dramas are assets that help us heal our daily stress and tension and provide us a lot of entertainment without going anywhere outside. Here is the list of some very famous and top-rated Pakistani old dramas that are,
- Khuda k Basti
- Dhoop Kinare
- Ainak Wala Jin
- Alpha Bravo Charlie
- Alif Noon
- Angan Terha
The naval branch of Pakistan armed forces is known as Pakitan Navy. After the partition of the subcontinent, it came into existence by transferring the equipment and also personnel from the Royal Indian Navy. Its main objective is to safeguard the marine borders of Pakistan. The main components of the Pakistan Navy are,
- Naval Aviation
- Maritime Security Agency
Since 14th August 1947, when it was commenced, Pakistan Navy has extended its defensive role. It not only protects our sea lanes but also has become the custodian of Pakistan’s second-strike capability as it has the ability to target underwater enemy positions by launching missiles.
In Pakistan, different fruits are grown in different seasons due to their environment and climate requirements. Some are grown in summer ( Mango, strawberry, water melon, lychee, palms, pineapple, apple, papaya etc.) as they require a very hot environment to grow and to become juicy. Some are grown in winter (guava, pear, grape frit, melon, oranges etc.) because they require a cold environment to nourish. However, others are grown in Autumn ( figs, bananas, kiwi fruit etc.) and Spring (Apricot, avocado, blueberry, fig and black fruit etc.).
Seasonal fruits are full of vitamins and other minerals and also anti oxidents that help you overcome the harsh effects of the environment and also are very beneficial for your health and skin.
The people of Balochistam celebrate their Culture day on 2nd of March to revive and to give tribute to the Balochi traditions, norms and values by wearing traditional dresses, cooking traditional foods, doing traditional dances and much more. In this way, they showcase their culture to Pakistan and to the whole world. All Pakistanis as a nation contribute their happiness with their Balochis on this day.
Here the day comes for which all women from all over the world waited for the International Women’s Day. A day that talks about the rights about the right, freedom, security and also the role of women in our society. This is the day that highlights the abusive behavior faced by the women ndue to their fragile nature. Islam has given a lot of importance to women and called them the pillars of the nation.
In Pakistan, women play a vital role in every field and there are women that highlight the dignity of Pakistan as, Fatima Jinnah, Benazir Bhutto, Zartaj Gul, Hina Rabbani Khar, Shehla Raza, Fahmida Mirza, Arfa Karim, Mriyam Mukhtiyar. According to Hadith, Awrah refers to everything that could be easily harmed meaning that women is helpless and could be harmed, so it is her right to be covered and protected with humility he is an asset for the nation’s glory.
Making and eating food is a big art and there each and every country has its distinctive style of taste, color look and recipes, and different traditional food. World-famous Pakistani foods related to cities are the blend of different cooking traditions of the Indian subcontinent, selected elements from the Mughal Legacy and Central Asia.
Various cities of Pakistan have their own peculiar taste and flavor. KPK traditional food is most demanding. Karachi is very famous for its Biryani. Mostly Pakistanis like hot and spicy food and also love sweet dishes. The most famous traditional dishes of Pakistan are Biryani, Kheer, Chicken Tikka, Seekh Kabab, Channa Chat, AlooQeema, Samosa, Nihari, Kabuli Pulao, Halwa Puri, Lahori Paye, Karachi Haleem, etc.
Pakistan gives tribute to its national heroes who lived only for the purpose of safeguarding their homeland. They sacrificed their lives for the welfare of their nation. These are the people who are the sign of hope for their people. Pakistan is blessed with such courageous people who surpassed many hardships and challenges a carves glorious future for us.
Our national heroes are,
- Allama Muhammad Iqbal
- Liaquat Ali Khan
- Mohtarma Fatima Ali Jinnah
- Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan
- Dr. Abdul Salam
- Rashid Minhas
- Abdul Sattar Edhi
- Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
- Muhammad Imran Khan
- Arfa Kareem
- Aitezaz Hassan
- Mariyam Mukhtiar
In Pakistan, labor day also called worker’s day is celebrated on 1st May to pay tribute to the struggles, efforts and contributions of laborers in the wellbeing of Pakistan. A public holiday is held all over the country and all Pakistani nation stands with the labor and raises their voice to promote their value in the eyes of the Government and to give them labor rights in which they demand to increase in their salary so that they could be paid the amount they deserve.
The history of the celebration of labor day is actually the eight-hour day movement, which supported an eight-hour workday, eight-hour evening rest, and eight hours of early morning sleep that occurred in New York for the first time on September 5, 1882. From that day, Labor day is celebrated in many countries including Pakistan. Its main aim is to realize to laborers how much they are important to us and that we are really concerned about their problems and take care of them.
Iqbal day is celebrated in the memory of our great national hero and poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal who was a great philosopher. It was his mind-blowing and motivational poetry that united the Muslims of the sub-continent at one point and also provoked the Two-Nation Theory. He served Muslims a lot in his life that they were able to recognize their powers and rights to live as an independent nation. It was his dream to achieve an independent and separate homeland for Muslims where they could live freely according to their Islamic norms and values. Son on 9th November, Pakistanis celebrate this day and pay tribute to the most influential figure in the history of Pakistan.