News is information about recent events. It is actually NEWS that stands for North, East, West and South. “News” typically gives the presentation of new information. Journalists provide news through many different media. These media may be of different type like based on word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting and electronic communication. . Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. News can cover number of vast topics including war, government, politics, education, health, the environment, economy, business, and entertainment or unusual events. Technological and social developments, telecommunication and networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content.
Media of Pakistan
Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan. To a large extent the media enjoys freedom of expression in spite of political pressure and direct bans sometimes administered by political stake holders. Political pressure on media is mostly done indirectly. One tool widely used by the government is to cut off ‘unfriendly’ media from governmental advertising. Using draconian laws the government has also banned or officially silenced popular television channels. The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has been used to silence the broadcast media by either suspending licenses or by simply threatening to do so. In addition, media is also exposed to propaganda from state agencies, pressured by powerful political elements and non-state actors involved in the current conflict.
Media freedom in Pakistan is complicated, journalists are free to report on most things. However any articles critical of the Government or the Military and related security agencies are automatically censored. Anything perceived as blasphemous by the country’s Blasphemy laws are also automatically subject to censorship. The blasphemy laws are also used to block website based free media such as YouTube and others.
The security situation for journalists in general has deteriorated in decade. At least 61 journalists have been killed since 2010. With at least 14 journalists killed in 2014 alone. A climate of fear impedes coverage of both state security forces and the militant groups. Threats and intimidation against journalists and media workers by state and non-state actors is widespread.
In its 2014 Press Freedom Index, Reporters without borders ranked Pakistan number 158 out of 180 countries based on freedom of the press. While Freedom House in its latest report listed the media in Pakistan as “Not Free”.
Since 2002, the Pakistani media has become powerful and independent and the number of private television channels have grown from just three state-run channels in 2000 to 89 in 2012, according to the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority. Most of the private media in Pakistan flourished under the Musharraf regime.
Pakistan has a vibrant media landscape and enjoys independence to a large extent. After having been liberalised in 2002, the television sector experienced a media boom. In the fierce competitive environment that followed commercial interests became paramount and quality journalism gave way to sensationalism. Although the radio sector has not seen similar growth, independent radio channels are numerous and considered very important sources of information – especially in the rural areas.
The Pakistani media landscape reflects a multi-linguistic, multi-ethnic and class-divided society. There is a clear divide between Urdu and English media. The Urdu media, particularly the newspapers, are widely read by the masses – mostly in rural areas. The English media is urban and elite-centric, is more liberal and professional compared to the Urdu media. English print, television and radio channels have far smaller audiences than their Urdu counterparts, but have greater leverage among opinion makers, politicians, the business community and the upper strata of society.
Pakistan has a vibrant media landscape; among the most dynamic and outspoken in South Asia. To a large extent the media enjoys freedom of expression. More than 89 television channels beam soaps, satire, music programmes, films, religious speech, political talk shows, and news of the hour. Although sometimes criticise for being unprofessional and politically biased, the television channels have made a great contribution to the media landscape and to Pakistani society.
Radio channels are numerous and considered a very important source of information – especially in the rural areas. Besides the state channel Radio Pakistan, a number of private radios carry independent journalistic content and news. But most radio content is music and entertainment. There are hundreds of Pakistani newspapers from the large national Urdu newspapers to the small local vernacular papers.
Pakistan’s media sector is highly influenced by the ownership structure. There are three dominating media moguls, or large media groups, which to some extent also have political affiliations. Due to their dominance in both print and broadcast industries all three media groups are very influential in politics and society.
Urdu Press of Pakistan Before 1947
The founder of the press in India were the employees of the East India Company and European Christian Missionaries. Therefore, the origin of the press in India was naturally in English. For the first fifty years after the publication of the first newspaper in India, the profession of journalism popular exclusively among the Europeans only. It was in the third decade of the 19th century that the local population of India took interest in this trade.
The provinces of Baluchistan, Sind and N.W.F.P. got the status of provinces after a long time. N.W.F.P. was a part of Punjab till 1910, while the province of Sind was included in the Bombay Presidency. Baluchistan was only a tribal area. Therefore, the important part was Punjab which the British annexed in 1849. Thus, it was after the British occupation that the press found its place in Punjab. The oldest Urdu newspaper of Pakistan is Koh- i-Noor of Lahore. Although the exact year of its starting publication is not known, however, it is on record that the paper existed in 1851.
The only Urdu newspaper worth the name in 1870 was “Akhbar-i-Aam”. Started by Lala Mukand Lai, Proprietor of a Hindi newspaper “Mitr Vilas” in 1870, it was soon converted into a daily and” became popular. Some of the Urdu periodicals in the Punjab of lesser importance were: “Akbar-i-Anjuman-i- Punjab”, (1870), “Faiz-i-Am” (1870), “Rehnumai Punjab” (1871), “Ataliq-i-Punjab” (1871), “Delhi Punch” (1880), “Kohi Toor” (1872), “Matla-i-Anwar” (1872), “Haqiqi Man” (1872J, “Hadi-e-Haqiqat” (1873), “Akhbar Jhelum” (1873), “Punjab Gazette” (1873), “Qasimual Akhbar” (1873), “Reformer” (1882), “Rafiq-i-Hind” (1884), and “Punjab Review” (1877). In 1877, the foundation of an important Urdu newspaper “Paisa Akhbar” was laid in Gujranwala. It was owned by Maulvi Mehbub Alam, who later shifted it to Lahore. The Paper carved a new path for itself by publishing articles of literary and educational value as well as notes and comments on national affairs. As its price was only one pice per copy, it soon became popular and commanded the largest circulation of 5000 (as compared to 1400 of the C. & M.G. and 2700 of the “Akbar-i-Aam”). Maulvi Mehbub Alam himself visited Europe for training in journalism which he imparted to other journalists working with him.
Early Communication networks:
News can travel through different communication media. In modern times, printed news had to be phoned into a newsroom or brought there by a reporter, where it was typed and either transmitted over wire services or edited and manually set in type along with other news stories for a specific edition. Today, the term “breaking news” has become trite as commercial broadcasting United States cable news services that are available 24 hours a day use live communications satellite technology to bring current events into consumers’ homes as the event occurs. Events that used to take hours or days to become common knowledge in towns or in nations are fed instantaneously to consumers via radio, television, mobile phone, and the Internet
The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe.
Following is a list of newspapers in Pakistan.
|Daily Mahasib||Daily||Urdu||Abbottabad, Mirpur, Muzaffarabad, Gilgit Baltistan||1998||An Independent Published and online Newspaper of Azad Kashmir and Pakistan|
|Weekly Green Pak News||Daily||Urdu||Lahore||2017||An independent continuously published and online Urdu language newspaper in Pakistan|
|Sarzameen||Daily||Urdu||Lahore, Gujranwala, Islamabad||2004||Independent published and online Urdu/English language newspaper in Pakistan|
|Voice of Pakistan||Daily||Urdu||Islamabad, Rawalpind||2004||Independent|
|Daily Salam||Daily||Urdu||Gilgit-Baltistan||Gilgit Baltistan||2006|
|Monthly Ninja||Monthly||Urdu||Gujrat Pakistan||Gujrat Pakistan||2000|
|Pakistan News Today||Daily||Urdu language||Online||2014|
|NewsAlert||Daily||Urdu||Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan, Gujrat, Sialkot, Kashmir, London||2014||ؔ|
|Roznama Jhoke||Daily||Saraiki langu language||Multan,Karachi,Khan pur||1970|
|The News Lark||Daily||English||Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Gawader, Quetta, Peshawar, Muzaffarabad||2004||Independent|
As its name implies.The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, and to exclude discussion of the relationships between them. News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past, even when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future. To make the news, an ongoing process must have some “peg”, an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Relatedly, news often addresses aspects of reality which seem unusual, deviant, or out of the ordinary.Hence the famous dictum that “Dog Bites Man” is not news, but “Man Bites Dog” is Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enable new media to disseminate news more quickly, ‘slower’ forms of communication may move away from ‘news’ towards ‘analysis’.
News agencies are services which compile news and disseminate it in bulk. Because they disseminate information to a wide variety of clients, who repackage the material as news for public consumption, news agencies tend to use less controversial language in their reports. Despite their importance, news agencies are not well known by the general public. They keep low profiles and their reporters usually do not get bylines.